Geodesy. Surveyor. (Tyumen, Tobolsk)

Geodesy — from the Ancient Greek word γεωδαισία geodaisia (literally, "division of the Earth") — is primarily concerned with positioning within the temporally varying gravity field. Geodesy in the German-speaking world is divided into "higher geodesy" ("Erdmessung" or "höhere Geodäsie"), which is concerned with measuring the Earth on the global scale, and "practical geodesy" or "engineering geodesy" ("Ingenieurgeodäsie"), which is concerned with measuring specific parts or regions of the Earth, and which includes surveying. Such "geodetic" operations are also applied to other astronomical bodies in the solar system. It is also the science of measuring and understanding the earth's geometric shape, orientation in space and gravity field.

The shape of the Earth is to a large extent the result of its rotation, which causes its equatorial bulge, and the competition of geological processes such as the collision of plates and of volcanism, resisted by the Earth's gravity field. This applies to the solid surface, the liquid surface (dynamic sea surface topography) and the Earth's atmosphere. For this reason, the study of the Earth's gravity field is called physical geodesy by some.